Appeal to spite
An appeal to spite is a fallacy in which spite is substituted for evidence when an “argument” is made against a claim. When successful, it manipulates the listener to question where and/or with whom their trust lies.
- Jack claims that the Earth is round and provides a picture from space as evidence. Frank, a flat-earther then causes you to question your trust in Jack, because Jack once used his Photoshop skills to create a fake photo which he asserted was an actual picture as a joke.
- Creationists point to the well-known hoaxes Piltdown Man and Nebraska Man implying or claiming outright that this is representative of scientists who used fossils to demonstrate human evolution.