Fallacy of composition
The Fallacy of composition is the fallacy of concluding that something that is true of the parts is also true of the whole.
The opposite fallacy is the fallacy of division, the claim that something that is true of the whole is also true of the parts.
- Every atom in my body is invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, I am invisible to the naked eye.
- Each citizen in society has a mother. Therefore society has a mother.
- In the Book of Acts, Luke's description of cities, countries and various customs is historically accurate. Therefore, everything in the Book of Acts is historically accurate.
- In 2011, presidential candidate Mitt Romney said that "corporations are people", and defended this argument by saying that corporations are composed of people.
A few obviously fallacious arguments should suffice to show that composition is not a valid inference.
- Everything in the universe is moved. Therefore, the universe is moved.
- Everything in the universe is caused. Therefore, the universe is caused.