Pledge of Allegiance
Originally written in 1898 by Francis Bellamy, the United States pledge of allegiance currently reads:
- "I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands: one Nation under God, indivisible, with Liberty and Justice for all."
In 1954, the words "under God" were added to the pledge. This is often referenced by apologists as evidence that America is a Christian nation.
9th Circuit decision in Newdow v. Elk Ridge
- "To recite the pledge is not to describe the United States; instead it is to swear allegiance to the values for which the flag stands: unity, indivisibility, liberty, justice and -- since 1954 -- monotheism"