# Proof by example

Proof by example is a logical fallacy whereby an example is claimed as evidence for a universal claim. The structure looks like this:

1. I know that x has property P.
2. x belongs to group G.
C. Therefore, all other elements of group G have property P.

Arguments using examples are valid only when leading to existential conclusions, not general ones.

1. I know that x has property P.
2. x belongs to group G.
C. Therefore, some member of group G has property P.

Moreover, no number of examples can establish the universal claim unless it is also predicated that all members of the group have been accounted for.

1. x, y and z have property P.
2. x, y, and z belong to group G.
3. x, y, and z account for all the members of group G.
C. All members of group G have property P.

The conclusion of this statement is predicated on the third premise just as strongly as the other two premises. Without it, the argument constitutes a fallacy of proof by example.

There are many uses of proof by examples in apologetics. Some are with respect to design arguments, and others are involved in claims made about religious institutions, and the causal relationship that those institutions have on individuals and societies. The causal element can make these arguments slightly more complicated; however, in many cases, the operative fallacy is still proof by example.

 v · d Logical fallacies
 v · d Formal fallacies
 Propositional logic Affirming a disjunct · Affirming the consequent · Argument from fallacy · False dilemma · Denying the antecedent Quantificational logic Existential fallacy · Illicit conversion · Proof by example · Quantifier shift Syllogistic Affirmative conclusion from a negative premise · Exclusive premises · Necessity · Four-term fallacy · Illicit major · Illicit minor · Undistributed middle

 v · d Faulty generalisations
 General Begging the question · Gambler's fallacy · Slippery slope · Equivocation · argumentum verbosium Distribution fallacies Fallacy of composition · Fallacy of division Data mining Cherry picking · Accident fallacy · Spotlight fallacy · Hasty generalization · Special pleading Causation fallacies Post hoc ergo propter hoc · Retrospective determinism · Suppressed correlative · Wrong direction Ontological fallacies Fallacy of reification · Pathetic fallacy · Loki's Wager
 v · d False relevance
 Appeals Appeal to authority · Appeal to consequences · Appeal to emotion · Appeal to motive · Appeal to novelty · Appeal to tradition · Appeal to pity · Appeal to popularity · Appeal to poverty · Appeal to spite · Appeal to wealth · Sentimental fallacy · Argumentum ad baculum Ad hominem Ad hominem abusive · Reductio ad Hitlerum · Judgmental language · Straw man · Tu quoque · Poisoning the well Genetic Fallacies Genetic fallacy · Association fallacy · Appeal to tradition · Texas sharpshooter fallacy